Which Part of South America is Most Likely to Experience Earthquakes Volcanoes and Tsunamis

Which Part of South America is Most Likely to Experience Earthquakes Volcanoes and Tsunamis

Volcanos and tsunamis are natural disasters that most probably generated by earthquakes and south America is considered the most effected region recorded in the past. South America has suffered many earthquakes throughout the history and witnessed huge loss in terms of economy, man force and resources etc.

In the recent years, the western and the northern part of the south America has witnessed some tremendous earthquakes across the continent through which the economy of the state has drastically move downwards and caused huge damage of billions of dollars.

The agency of USGS that take accountability of seismic activity of the continent stated their proposal that in order to overcome the damages from the past and upcoming in the future can be compensate and prevented by making discussion’s that should be based on proper knowledge and research that where the earthquakes can occur in future and how often they might be occur and how strong their magnitude would be.

Which Part of South America is Most Likely to Experience Earthquakes Volcanoes and Tsunamis

Part of South America Likely to Experience Earthquakes Volcanoes and Tsunamis: USGS research

In order to determine that which part of south America is most likely to experience earthquakes, volcanos, and tsunamis the agency USGS has conducted thoroughly research in collaborating with the management of the south America continent and succeeded in developing the models and strategies to enhance the efficiency of emergency planning effort of nationwide.

While if we have a look on the local research studies that had been conducted on the basis of damages caused by earthquakes then the study based on five methodology principles which are follows as:

  • The newest updated catalog of USGS [1].
  • Record of the USGS over the past 30 years in collaboration with the local scientists/researchers of the south America continent and new models with mapped faults.
  • The latest USGS ground seismic motion models that have applied in the hazard maps.
  • USGS PAGER susceptibility models (“PAGER” full abbreviation is the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response, and it is a system that provides mortality and economic loss that possess estimates following significant earthquakes worldwide)
  • All the applied methods in the U.S. building codes.

The local study research of the south America continent is hardly evaluated and uniformed about the earthquakes that caused shaking hazards and risk, but it is the first report through which the management have succeeded in standardizing applicable methodologies and models to take over the risks and hazards.

It is because of the report that the management is able to reduce the inconsistencies throughout the continent, and to target the regions that are in sake of high hazard and risk within the continent.

you can Also Read About which is the best explanation for how earthquakes cause tsunamis

Conclusion

It has been concluded from the research that over 160 million people (or can be said that the third of the total population of South America) live in the areas that effected with considerably higher seismic hazards, principally inside the northern and western portions of the continent.

These are the sites where earthquakes caused shaking of grounds resulting tsunamis are termed as most common areas.it does not mean that only the coastal areas are at risk of hazard. Countries such as Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru could also face high hazard and risk

Chile also faces high hazard, but the vulnerability of buildings is much lower compared with the northern countries due to modern and stringent building codes.

Hence it is dictated from the research that the areas of northern and western part of south America where the seismic activities are not in favorable range is at stake of experience earthquakes, volcanos, and tsunamis.

 

 

 

 

 

Which is the Best Explanation for How Earthquakes Cause Tsunamis

Which is the Best Explanation for How Earthquakes Cause Tsunamis?

Basically, Tsunamis are disasters from nature. These are generated by the ocean waves and their magnitude does not remain the same it varies. There are many factors that can trigger a tsunami, but the most important factor is earthquakes, and it is proven scientifically that large earthquakes cause tsunamis.

Before we go to the main topic let me tell you that what is an earthquake?

This can be defined as the movement of the earth’s crust. Simply the shaking of the ground is an earthquake, it caused by nature i-e volcanic activity, landslides, or by human activities i-e coalmine blasts, and atomic experiments

When the shaking of ground occurs due to an earthquake beneath the sea then suddenly the sea slabs move past each other it causes the overlying water to move fast and creating waves

These resulting waves move away from the earthquake and become tsunamis.

How earthquakes cause tsunamis? – Effect of Minor and large earthquake

An earthquake may be minor or large depending upon its magnitude and this magnitude is very important in triggering tsunamis.

Minor earthquakes that are in a range of magnitude below 6.5 are implausible to generate a tsunami but there are following magnitudes that can cause fewer to higher tsunamis.

Which is the Best Explanation for How Earthquakes Cause Tsunamis

An earthquake with a magnitude above 6.5 and below 7.5

An earthquake of this magnitude is likely to generate a tsunami. It is generated due to small changes in sea level. This tsunami never did any much destruction but has the capability to cause damage and causalities. Most of the time it is generated due to human activities.

An earthquake with a magnitude above 7.6 and below 7.8

The earthquakes of this magnitude can trigger large tsunamis that can produce destruction. Especially near the epicenter (the is the point on the earth’s surface that is vertically above the focus of an earthquake).

When this type of tsunami is generated it can be sensed from the distance’s places with small sea-level changes and minor waves but tsunamis that can produce damage to distances places are very rare in this type.

An earthquake that has a greater magnitude than 7.9

Earthquakes of this magnitude can trigger destructive tsunamis that can instigate immense damage. Significant or visible sea level changes might be seen in the distance’s places from the epicenter.

Hence. earthquake is a major factor causing tsunamis.

Read More about how dangerous are tsunamis

Here are some of the tsunamis from the past that have been caused by earthquakes:

 

Sumatra, Indonesia – 26 December 2004

This tsunami was caused by an earthquake that had a magnitude of 9.1 off the coastline of Sumatra. This earthquake occurred at an intensity of 30 km. the tsunami was 50km tall that reached 5 km inward in the vicinity of Meubolah, Sumatra [1].

This was the most broadly recorded tsunami with nearly one thousand merged tide gauge and witnesses the measurements from around the world, following places from the US, the UK, and Antarctica did report the height.

North Pacific Coast, Japan – 11 March 2011

This tsunami was generated from an earthquake that had a magnitude of 9.0 that reached depths of 24.4km- making it the fourth-largest earthquake ever recorded.

This tsunami traveled 800km per hour with 10m tall waves flew over the east coastline of Japan, which had killed more than 18,000 people.

Lisbon, Portugal – 1 November 1755

This tsunami was generated by an earthquake that had a magnitude of 8.5. it affected three huge waves that strike on several cities near the west coastline of southern Spain and Portugal.

In some places it was recorded at 30 m high, its waves did see from faraway places as Carlisle Bay, Barbados. The earthquake-generated tsunami had killed 60.000 people in Portugal, Morocco, and in Spain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Cities Mostly Likely to Get Hit by a Tornado (Part IV)

These cities are familiar with tornadoes.

Omaha, Nebraska Hit by a Tornado

When you think of Nebraska, you possibly picture cows, cornfields, tractors, and tornadoes. Despite Omaha being an active city with a great cultural background, most typically think Nebraska is one vast field with just dirt roads crossing it. There’s a lot more to the state. In Omaha, getting hit by a tornado is possible. 

As the northern section of the center of Tornado Alley, Nebraska experiences tornados frequently.  They go through anything in their paths, such as cities. In the 70s, a violent storm hit the Omaha area. Three people lost their lives and hurt over 100 individuals over a two-day period. If a tornado this bad struck the area once, it wouldn’t be a shock to see it happen once more.

Wichita, Kansas

Kansas is popular for getting hit by a tornado. Heck, a few movies where the action takes place in Kansas. The early film industry created one in the famous movie, The Wizard of Oz. Though Wichita is no longer cattle-grazing farmland, it still gets tornadoes like the one that whisked Dorothy away to Oz. They don’t move homes off to other dimensions).

An early pioneering town during America’s expansion west, Wichita became a huge checkpoint for those traveling to Colorado in the 1800s. It has since changed from a community of farms to a busy, industrial center. However, that doesn’t mean tornadoes are cautious to avoid it.

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Oklahoma is usually known as the heart of Tornado Alley. It sits at the center of storm activity in the Great Plains. Oklahoma City, the state’s biggest metropolitan area, and is prone to violent storms that typically start in the countryside and go close to developed land.

The National Weather Service printed a paper describing the tornadoes that have struck the city in recent years. The paper concluded that at least 12 tornadoes have touched down in Oklahoma City, the most recent in 2013. 

US Cities Mostly Likely to Get Hit by a Tornado (Part III)

These cities are most likely to get hit by a tornado.

Des Moines, Iowa

The capital of Iowa, Des Moines, isn’t a big city by any means. Nor is it noted as a very attractive holiday destination for most. However, it deserves credit for tolerating harsh Midwestern weather. This city is one of the most likely to get hit by a tornado. 

In 2018, Des Moines and surrounding Polk County suffered a bad tornado season, battered by storms. Tornado season is typically at its worst in late spring. Des Moines sits at the center of Iowa. The city suffers more tornadoes than other parts of the state. Two powerful storms struck in 2018, at Pella and Marshalltown, towns that are close to Des Moines.

Dallas, Texas

Kansas City isn’t the only city to name a sports team after the local weather. Dallas has a soccer team that played in Texas city from the 60s to the 80s. A large city, Dallas is well equipped to face severe weather. Texans are blessed with hot, sunny weather in the summer. Though, they have to compensate in the springtime during tornado season.

But, tornadoes here may not be so harsh. Dallas News stated that North Texas had only seen five tornadoes in 2018, a surprisingly low number compared to other years

Kansas City isn’t the only city to name a sports team after the local weather—the Dallas Tornado was a soccer team that played in the Texas city from the 1960s to the 1980s. A huge city, Dallas is well equipped to face harsh weather. Texans are blessed with sunny, hot weather in the summer, but are forced to compensate in the spring during tornado season.

However, tornadoes here might not be so severe. Dallas News reported in June that North Texas had only seen five tornadoes in 2018, an astonishingly low number compared to other years. Houston, another big city in Texas, is famous for severe flooding. But it still remains one of the cities most likely to get hit by a tornado. 

US Cities Most Likely to Get Hit by a Tornado (Part II)

These cities are most likely to be hit by a tornado.

Topeka, Kansas

The state’s capital and the second big city in Kansas on this list, Topeka isn’t any less prone than Wichita, or the little farm towns in the state but, it is one of the cities most likely to get hit by a tornado. The city is home to neoclassical architecture and some of Kansas’s most distinct historical attractions narrating the state’s past during the Old West. 

A series of tornadoes in 1966 was a big event, shaping the local history. The F5-rated tornado sequence that struck Topeka between June 2 and 12 destroyed the city when 57 tornadoes triggered 18 casualties and more than 400 injuries.

Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Tornado’s activity starts to calm down a bit going north into South Dakota. However, it’s still hit hard with severe weather. Sioux Falls is a charming, quiet city on the eastern side of South Dakota, resting on the banks of the Big Sioux River. You can view the low waterfalls that give the city its name at Falls Park, a calm reserve in the summer in the city.

However, Sioux Falls isn’t always so calm. There have been over 40 reported tornadoes touching down in the county since 1956, the biggest being an F4 in 1993 that hit north of Sioux Falls. Making it one of the cities most likely to get hit by a tornado. 

Tulsa, Oklahoma

A previous oil town, Tulsa, Oklahoma is famous for its art deco architecture and seat in the Green Country close to the Osage Hills and Ozark Mountains. The second biggest city in the state, Tulsa was established in the early part of the 19th century. Despite its oil business dwindling, the city is anticipated to grow and develop in the near future.

That is, presuming a massive tornado doesn’t destroy it first. Its spot in a hilly area helps to inhibit extreme storms. Though, in 2017, an EF5 tornado still managed to produce lasting damage to the area.

 

US Cities Mostly Likely to Get Hit by a Tornado (Part I)

Certain parts of the US are more prone to be hit by a tornado.

You can possibly guess that lots of the United States’ tornado activity take place in the appropriately named, “Tornado Alley.” Most of the land in the American Midwest is predisposed to be hit by tornadoes, particularly in the flat land of the Great Plains. 

Even though there is no real border to Tornado Alley, its core is situated in the states of Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and part of northern Texas. However, vast numbers of tornadoes can happen even in places such as the Dakotas, Colorado, and Florida.

According to studies, Tennessee is the state hardest hit by tornadoes. It can have over 70 in one day during peak season even though most of the state is not in the heart of Tornado Alley. Oklahoma comes in second place, with over 65 tornadoes touching down in one day. To be defined as a tornado, it has to touch the ground and be a convective cloud at the same time. 

The Plains and Midwest regions have the largest concentration of tornadoes on earth. Despite tornadoes happening on other continents, amateur storm chasers should research these locations to find their next tornado. Though, you should perhaps leave that to the pros.

Kansas City, Missouri

Though it shares a name with the state, Kansas City is really a big city in western Missouri. With a population of more than two million, the city’s infrastructure would be demolished in the event of being hit by a  tornado.

Nonetheless, the city and the surrounding parts see lots of less apocalyptic tornadoes a year. Straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas, it’s close to the epic center of Tornado Alley and has a huge chance of experiencing storm hits. Though, the Missourians appear to be proud of it. Kansas City even named its professional basketball team after what it is famous for: the Kansas City Tornadoes.

 

Best Temperatures for Parrots (Part III)

Finding the best temperature for your parrot ensures that they are comfortable and thriving.

Is Your Parrot Comfortable with The Temperature?

The best temperature for your parrot may be on the higher or lower end. However, the range is going to depend on numerous factors:

The Bird’s Weight

Real skinny birds have less subcutaneous fat and muscle on their bones to help them keep warm. Skinny birds might not be able to handle a really cold temperature like a bird that has more muscle mass. Also, obese birds are greatly prone to overheating and don’t do well in really hot weather compared to lower weight birds. 

The fatter the parrot, the less capability it has to deal with high temperature which has to make them be extremely prone to heat stress. Their fat layer functions as an insulator and it stops air movement in and out of the air sac. An obese parrot won’t have the ability to deal with sudden exposure to 85 degrees Fahrenheit temperature. On the other hand, a lean parrot could stand 90- or 95-degrees Fahrenheit with no problems.

Parrots and Cold Temperatures

At the point when the climate outside gets scary, it can be more than awkward for pet birds and their owners.

There is no perfect temperature as long as the birds are healthy and can acclimatize to that temperature. If you are going to let your bird travel with you this winter, begin preparing him at least 12 weeks ahead.

Their immune systems do not work well at sub-optimal temperatures. Also, their metabolism and digestive systems slow down during this time. They might get fluffed up, also using all their energy trying to trap warm air between their bodies and feathers to stay warm and stop eating.

Now you know all you have to know about parrots and the temperatures that are right for them. Here’s to keeping your bird healthy.

Best Temperatures for Parrots (Part II)

There are many ways you adjust the temperatures for your parrot.

Regulating Your Parrot’s Temperature

Provide Heat and Avoid Fumes

Numerous birds require warmth to stay healthy. When the weather cools off, they become fluffy, using all their energy to trap heated air between their feathers and their body.  Because of the nature of the respiratory system, exotic birds are quite sensitive to practically any fumes. If you have to keep them warm, make sure it is not with a heat source that discharges smoke and that it’s set to the best temperatures for parrots. 

Stop Exposure to Hot Sun

If your bird’s cage is already sitting in direct sunlight, the kindest thing you can do is to remove it to another cooler room, offer a shade cloth material, and don’t move your bird in the hottest part of the day. 

Offer Your Birds Enough Water

Most exotic birds get dehydrated easily. This is because of their little body size and fast metabolism. They have a very high-water requirement and can become dehydrated quickly. If you want to keep your bird healthy throughout winter and summer, give fresh drinking water daily.

Also, keep an eye on his or her daily water intake. Stressed exotic pets might pant and can lose moisture content through their mouths. For this very reason, they necessitate more water intake.

Setting Up A Sprinkler

During the hot months, you can put out a sprinkler once in a while to keep your birds cool or open the window a little or set a fan set to help move air on the bird. Allowing your bird to cool off keeps them at the best temperatures for parrots. 

Feed Them Very Well

Nervous birds might have a reduced craving for food which is typically the key issue faced by pet keepers in the wintertime. Try to offer your Parrot food particularly it’s favorite during bad weather. If possible, feed them through a syringe or hand feed them. 

It is critical to monitor their appetites to be sure that they are eating when they are unprotected in hot or cold weather. Pets burn more calories trying to adjust its internal temperature. Therefore, it is crucial you keep an eye on their feeding level.

 

Best Temperatures for Parrots (Part I)

Knowing the best temperature for parrots will guarantee that they are comfortable.

A good number of healthy parrots can deal with average room temperature during the day and night, notwithstanding, taking some precautions when necessary. It’s helpful to know what the best temperatures are for parrots to ensure that they are thriving. 

Is the weather too hot or cold? It is essential to know the ideal temperature range your pet bird needs to remain healthy. Most pet birds are comfortable with temperature among 65- and 85-degrees Fahrenheit. They are warm-blooded animals and basically originate from the temperate region.

Birds sustain their body temperatures more than humans. A pet bird has to work and eat more to keep normal body temperature. This is why your parrot will eat more when the weather is cold or during the wintertime and they shed in the summer when it’s warmer.

Signs That Your Bird Isn’t Comfortable with the Temp

Like A Puffball

Have you ever thought why birds fluff up, having a grumpy reaction, or look a little like a downy ball at times? The reason your parrot fluffs up is that something is wrong. This action is just one of the mechanisms birds use in making themselves warm by ensnaring pockets of warm air next to their skin. If your bird’s wings are drooping and the bird is holding his feathers out, it’s a sign that the temperature is on the high side. Adjusting the temperatures for parrots who look a little fluffy will ensure that they are comfortable again in no time. 

Your Bird is Panting and has Cold or Warm Feet 

If your bird’s feet feel very hot, it signifies that their internal body temperature is too high. Are the feathers situated close to the body and does the bird hold its wing as if he would like to fly? Does your bird breathe with its beak open? These are all signs that the temp is too high for your feathered amigo.

Parrot Tucked with Its Head Inside His Feathers

Birds will usually put his head down and tuck his beak into his breast feather when he’s cool. Also, a cold bird will shiver.

 

The Polar Vortex and Winter Weather

The connection between the polar vortex and winter weather has been linked. 

It is now apparent that there is a statistically critical link between the strength of the winter polar vortex, Siberian snow cover, and winter temperatures across a great part of North America as well as Europe and northern Asia.

By using a snow cover as a forecaster of the power of the winter polar vortex, this relationship is used to precisely predict winter temperatures. Other seasonal forecasts overlook the snow-polar vortex relationship and tend to focus just on ENSO to forecast large scale temperature patterns.

How the Polar Vortex Affects Regional Temperatures

The polar vortex is a quick-flowing stream of air that circles the North Pole in the winter months in the upper atmosphere, referred to as the stratosphere. Typically, when the polar vortex is strong, temperatures are mild in the mid-latitudes over the Eastern US and Northern Eurasia. When the vortex is weak, temperatures tend to be cold in the Eastern US as well as northern Asia and Europe.

Strong Polar Vortex

Strong is the usual state of the polar vortex. When the polar vortex is strong, this produces strong low pressure in the Arctic region. Since the pressure differs between the Arctic and mid-latitudes, air flows into low pressure and this confines the cold air to high latitudes close to the Arctic. 

Therefore, it is frequently mild across Europe, the Eastern US, and East Asia during wintertime when the polar vortex is strong. During strong polar vortex, the airflow is rapid and in a direction from west to east.

Weak Polar Vortex

When the polar vortex is weak, the airflow is fainter and travels north and south instead of west to east. This permits a redistribution of air masses where cold air from the Arctic goes into the mid-latitudes and warm air from the subtropics is transported into the Arctic. This combining of air masses also favors more snow and storms in the mid-latitudes.